Virologists deny that current vaccines, including those approved against Covid-19, may aggravate a possible later infection by the virus due to the phenomenon known as “antibody dependent enhancement” (ADE), which facilitates infection of the organism.
This has been confirmed in a verification carried out within the framework of the # VacúnaTE project, that maldita.es and Servimedia carry out maldita.es and Servimedia against misinformation about coronavirus vaccines with the support of Google Digital News Innovation.
In this sense, experts deny the content of a poster that has been viralized on social networks, in which it is said that “30% of those vaccinated will die in a few months“It is also argued that messenger RNA vaccines will generate” a phenomenon called antibody dependent enhancement (ADE) “, which supposedly allows messenger RNA to replicate” indefinitely “creating protein S” chunks “inside the body.
The claim is attributed to Sherri Tenpenny, an American osteopath and anti-vaccine activist who has already spread misinformation about Covid-19. According to the virologist Pepe Alcamí, the antibody-dependent facilitation phenomenon, known as the ADE phenomenon, consists of antibodies could bind to the virus and facilitate infection of cells. But, according to the expert, this phenomenon has not been identified in the case of Covid-19.
How the ADE works
To understand what ADE is, Alcamí suggests imagining the antibodies that the vaccine seeks to generate as if they were a clamp. “An antibody has two functional parts, it is like a clamp. In its variable region (the part of the clamp that traps) binds to an antigen specifically (it binds to one in particular, not all), for example to a piece or ‘domain’ of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike and ideally neutralizes it. But the other extreme or constant zone, in certain types of antibodies (not all), can be join some receivers they have about everything macrophage cells of the body“.
“In doing so,” he explains, “that type of cell ‘phagocytes’ (eats) the virus-antibody complex and breaks it down. It is another way to destroy the virus. The problem arises when viruses adapt to resist inside the macrophage and by surviving they infect it or through it they can infect other cells or cause non-beneficial inflammation. “
If this occurs, the antibodies generated by previous exposure to a pathogen, be it an environmental exposure or by the vaccine, can pose a problem rather than a solution, since make the second exposure aggravate the infection caused.
According to the virologist, “the only disease in which this was demonstrated was in a respiratory syncytial virus vaccine (RSV) that did induce antibodies that facilitated infection when the child came into contact with the virus and caused severe pneumonia. “But this vaccine was withdrawn” and experience makes us always analyze whether a vaccine against respiratory viruses induces this phenomenon. ” , Add.
No case with the Covid vaccine
In the case of Covid-19, according to the expert, “no case has been documented or seen. Nor has the severity of the disease been associated with this phenomenon. “Similarly, Professor Africa González explains that the ADE phenomenon has not been detected with Covid-19, nor has it been detected in people already vaccinated.
In a Natural Microbiology article on the ADE phenomenon and Covid-19 treatments and vaccines, the researchers came to the following conclusion: “Steps to reduce ADE risks of immunotherapies include the induction or administration of high doses of powerful neutralizing antibodies, rather than lower concentrations of non-neutralizing antibodies that would be more likely to cause ADE. “
In this sense, the messenger RNA vaccine, such as the one from Pfizer and BioNTech and the one from Moderna, does induce neutralizing antibodies “and probably also non-neutralizing ones, but do not induce facilitating antibodies“, explains Alcamí, who ensures that the production of neutralizing antibodies has been measured in all clinical trials.
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