Although some calculations assure that the coronavirus vaccine will be ready by the end of the year, it is still a long way from being a reality.

Experience has shown us that the most effective way to stop the spread of viruses is to create vaccines.

However, it is a process that requires thorough investigation, tens (or hundreds) of prototypes that will have to go through experimental phases and, of course, tens of millions of dollars.

Coronavirus vaccine: the only way to immunity

Seven months after the coronavirus was identified and spread throughout the world, there is still no medicine capable of stopping it.

Despite hygiene and healthy distance measures that have quarantined more than two-thirds of the global population, the 13 million confirmed cases and 570 thousand fatalities demonstrate the urgency to find a coronavirus vaccine as the only one way to provoke herd immunity and minimize contagions.

Currently, more than 150 vaccines are developed and at least 23 are in the human testing phase. Of this last group, the three most advanced vaccines that emerge as the main candidates are the ChAdOx1 vaccine from the University of Oxford and AstraZeneca (England), the mRNA-1273 vaccine from Moderna Therapeutics (developed in the United States) and AD5-nCoV from CanSino Biologics and the Institute of Biotechnology and the Chinese Academy of Military Medical Sciences (China).

Produce, distribute and buy: the challenges after the vaccine

Although a safe and efficient vaccine will be ready in the coming months, the world faces a major challenge of organization and mutual cooperation: the production, distribution and sale of billions of doses for as many people as possible around the globe .

It is clear that the population at risk and the elderly are the priority, but which countries should be the first to receive the vaccine, those that face more intense outbreaks, those that are sunk in a more serious crisis, who produced it or who can buy it?

To resolve all of these unknowns in the most ethical way possible, WHO teamed up with GAVI (Global Alliance for Vaccination) to jointly present the COVID-19 Global Vaccine Access Fund. It is a financial instrument that includes countries and pharmaceutical companies to encourage vaccine manufacturers to produce enough doses and thus lower their price.

In the best possible scenario, the World Health Organization estimates that hundreds of millions of doses will be ready by the end of 2020 and 2 billion more next year.

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