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Coronavirus | The vaccine closer than ever: this is how the three most advanced are

The race to get one effective vaccine against coronavirus continues, although every time its end seems closer. Developing a vaccine, a long process that usually takes a couple of years at best, it has been accelerated by the coronavirus pandemic.

Every time the World Health Organization officially decreed the pandemic on March 11, pharmaceutical companies around the world put all their resources available in the development of a vaccine to stop SARS-CoV-2, a pathogen about which little was known at that time and that little by little it was spreading throughout the world.

Today, according to WHO itself, there are up to 212 potential vaccine projects in development, of which 48 are in the clinical phase, the last of the process, and another 164 in a preclinical phase. All this speed in the search does not mean, however, less security. With the aim of winning as much time as possible, some processes are carried out in parallel. For example, the European Medicines Agency (EMA) carries out a “ongoing review” of some of the potential vaccines.

Pfizer, the first to announce its effectiveness

Last week, the American pharmaceutical company Pfizer announced by surprise that its vaccine, based on experimental ribonucleic acid (RNA) technology, is 90% effective against coronavirus.

Some results obtained after intermediate analyzes carried out in more than 43,500 volunteers from six different countries. However, the rehearsals are not over yet and will continue with them. until 164 cases of COVID-19 are detected among the candidates. The vaccine Pfizer, in collaboration with BioNTech, is given in two doses 28 days apart. To date, they have not reported any major side effects, although some volunteers compare them to “a strong hangover”.

Sputnik V, the Russian option

Just hours after the Pfizer announcement it was known that the Sputnik V vaccine, developed by the Gamaleya Institute in Moscow, also has an efficiency of 90%, which days later was enlarged to 92%. “We hope to publish the interim results of the post-registration trial of the Sputnik V vaccine, the so-called phase III trials, soon. I’m sure your level of effectiveness will also be high“, declared the director of the Gamaleya Institute, Alexander Gintsburg. In his case, it is a combined vector vaccine.

For his essay have been carried out tests on more than 40,000 people. Currently in phase 3 of the trials, the preliminary results are expected to be officially published by the end of the month. Sputnik V, which given in two doses 21 days apart, was recorded in the month of August, and the speed in the process makes doubt her, even who. According to a study published in The Lancet, 100% of those vaccinated so far had developed a positive immune response.

Modern, the last to arrive

The North American company has been the last to announce its results. Your vaccine, based on messenger RNA combined with the genetic code of the virus itself, it is 94.5% effective, they assure. The mRNA-1273, which is the name of his project, has been tested on more than 30,000 people. “The most important thing is that 11 of the 95 people who got sick and did severely, with hospitalization and breathing problems, were on placebo“, says Juan Andrés, Moderna’s technical director.

With a limited production for this 2020, with just 20 million for distribution in the United States, by next year they hope to be able to manufacture between 500 and 1,000 million in the event that everything goes according to plan. It also consists of two doses to be administered 28 days apart.

AstraZeneca, next?

These three mentioned are the first to have announced the efficacy of their vaccines, but Before the end of the year, someone else may offer news in this regard. It could well be the one developed by the pharmaceutical AstraZeneca together with the University of Oxford. It is one of the most advanced projects in Europe and uses a attenuated version of the chimpanzee common cold virus.

A few weeks ago his rehearsals had to paralyzed due to serious side effects, although days later they resumed again. One of the great hopes is that it generates a adequate immune response in both young and old. Regarding side effects, milder have been observed in those of older age. It is one of the companies with which the European Commission reached a agreement to supply up to 300 million doses, of which 30 would be for Spain.