On May 27 the National Celiac Day is celebrated and althoughit is a pathology increasingly present in our society, continues to be still unknown to many.

Celiac disease,also known as gluten sensitive enteropathy, is a disease mediated by the immune system by which a person reacts to the intake of gluten. In Spain it is around 1% of incidence and although it is usually diagnosed in childhood, it also occurs in adulthood.

And although it is increasingly common to find‘gluten free’ productsor that when we sit at the table someone claims a special letter for being gluten intolerant, the truth is that there are still many hoaxes and doubts that accompany this digestive problem and that is why from the Melio team of doctors, online platform from blood tests, he wanted to explain the main hoaxes that arise around celiac disease (CD) and remember the most frequent symptoms.

1. It is not a gluten allergy

Allergic reactions are also mediated byimmune system of our body-like EC- but by other routes and with other types of antibodies, so it should not be considered as an allergy.

2. The EC does not understand levels

There are people who think that you can be a little celiac or very celiac, understanding as such the level of response they would generate to exposure to gluten. This is false, there are no levels of celiac disease, although it is true that in a person who follows the diet strictly,If you occasionally eat a small amount of gluten, it usually does not generate a great response.However, a celiac who does not adequately follow the diet, with little gluten to take already generates enough symptoms.

3. CD has no cure

Today it is a condition for life, so a celiac will always be. It is true that following a strict diet does not presentmore complications than the very fact of following the rigorous diet.

4. There is no medical treatment

The only way to treat this disease is by wearinga completely gluten-free diet.There is no possible medical treatment beyond dietary change that should be started as soon as the diagnosis is known. The improvement appears in a week or two.

5. It is not only in cereals

Gluten is a group of proteins present in cereals wheat, rye, barley, oats and triticale-cereal that comes from the crossing of wheat and rye. But, in addition, it may appear in somethickeners or binders used in the food industryand that they contain some of the cereals, so care should be taken with some sausages, processed meats, dyes, sauces and other processed foods.

The main symptoms and diagnosis

People who are undiagnosed or who do not follow an adequate diet may suffer symptoms, especially in the small intestine, with alterations in intestinal transit.malabsorption of certain nutrients or skin disorderswhich have gut pain, diarrhea, weight loss, heavy digestion, bloating, osteopenia, iron deficiency, or slow growth at an early age.

To diagnose CD, it is enough to carry out a celiac disease test that is carried out through a blood test and is usually carried out when some of the above symptoms exist.The patient undergoes an initial study with anti-transglutaminase antibodies, considered pathologicalif you get a level 10 times the high limit of normality. The study can be completed with antigliadin or antiendomysial antibodies, whose positivity (above the limit of normality, which varies slightly between laboratories) is already significant.

In addition to symptomatic patients, genetic tests are sometimes performed on first-degree relatives of celiac patients. In this case, a cut-off point is not established since being a carrier of some of the HLA variants described (which are DQ2 or DQ8 in most cases),it is considered the genetic substrate of the disease. However, suffering from risk genetics does not imply having the disease since it is a genetic variant of normality.

Blood analysis and response to the gluten-free diet are sufficient in some patients.Instead, others must complete the study with an upper digestive endoscopy to visualize and take duodenal biopsies, which would be studied in the Pathology Laboratory.

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